TEMPAT PERINDUKAN VEKTOR, SPESIES NYAMUK ANOPHELES, DAN PENGARUH JARAK TEMPAT PERINDUKAN VEKTOR NYAMUK ANOPHELES TERHADAP KEJADIAN MALARIA PADA BALITA

Muhammad Kazwaini, Santi Martini

Abstract


Malariae affects almost part of Indonesia, one of them is Lombok District West Nusa Tenggara where malariae incidence is high. One indicator to show magnitude of malariae transmition in a certain area through ascertaining malariae disease among infants, children under five years, and children up to nine years old. Lenght of flying is an influenced factor of malariae vector to look for resting, feeding, and breeding. So, the factor is a concerned factor of controlling effort to malariae disease. The study objectives were to investigate breeding places, vector species of malariae, and lenght of flying influence of Anopheles mosquito to malariae incidence among children under five years. The study was an observational research with cross sectional design which conducted in Sambelia Subdistrict East Lombok District. The sample size was 347 children under five years.

The study showed that most of children’s age (47,3%) was 37–59 months with no differences according to sex. The nature of breeding places were 134,70 – 750 m2 in average width, with algae, grass, and moss area in water biota, and mostly muddy on turbidity level except at breeding places in two sub-villages. The study founded two genus of mosquitoes, Culex and Anopheles. The species of Anopheles that are found in the study area are An. sundaicus, An. subpictus, An. aconitus, An. barbirostris, An. minimus dan An. Anullaris. There were 9 sub villages near from the breeding places (less than 1000 m), 7 sub-villages with midlle distance from the breeding places (1000 – 2000 m), and 8 sub-villages far from it (more than 2000 m). The risk of malariae occurence was 1,78 more for children who lived near from breeding places than children who lived far from it.

Distance between their home and breeding places influenced to malariae occurence among children under five years in Sambelia Subdistrict. The distance is nearer increasing the risk of malariae occurence among children under five years.

Keywords: Anopheles species, Breeding place, Children Under Five Years, Malariae.


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