Prevalensi dan Faktor Resiko Asma Bronkial pada Siswa Sekolah Lanjutan Tingkat Pertaina di Kotamadya Yogyakarta

Mochamad Sjaifurrochman, Tonny Sadjimin

Abstract


The objectives of the study were to identify the epidemiological data on asthma and it's correlation with the risk factors unong junior high school students at the Municipality of Yogyakarta using cross sectional a rid case control design. A Proportional Population Random Sample (PPRS) was conducted to select students from the whole population and only whose parents agreed and signed an inforr ied consent was included as the study's respondents. Students with severe disease were excludes from the study. Asthma prevalence was determined and validated by the ISAAC, ATS 78 aid Robertson modification questionnaires. The questionnaire consisted of questions about the s tudents suffering from asthma, wheezing, and difficulty to breath during the last sixth month . Three thousand one hundred sixty five junior high school students, 1,522 (48.1%) boys and ] ,643 (51.9%) girls were included in the study. The youngest was 10 year 2 month old and the eldest was 18 year 7 month old with average age 14 year 3 month. Students in the case group were matched to students according to age, sex and class to establish a control group. Data on children and parents' characteristics, smokers/non-smokers and house pollution were collected using a questionnaire. Data was evaluated using chi square test, analysis of variance and risk estimate. The study indicated that there was a significant difference between the older age and asthma incidence (p<0.05). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) between parer t education level, father's occupation, total family income, mean of smoking amount and ast] ma incidence. There was no significant difference between house pollution result of kitch ;n equipment and asthma incidence (p>0.05). Though inconclusive, using gas stove coul l be considered of having contribution of asthma incidence (OR: 1.287, 95% CI: 0.950 – 1.74`. ). The study concluded that asthma prevalence among junior high school students at Yogyaka in municipality was 10.55%, no differences on sex and decreased by the older age. Passive smoking is a risk factor for asthma. Gas stove as resource of house pollution could be consider ;d having contribution to the incidence of asthma. Asthma prevalence among junior high schc )1 at Yogyakarta was 10.55% among boys and 9.92% among girls 11.33%. There was no significant difference among sexes (p: 0.830) and the total history of asthma was 13.36%. (Jurnal Epidei iiologi Indonesia, 2000, 4:3: 9-16)


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